A quick way to determine if a study is an example of empirical research is to ask yourself, "Could I recreate this study and test these results?'. Key characteristics to look for:
Data can be collected in a variety of ways such as interviews, surveys, questionnaires, observations, and various other quantitative and qualitative research methods.
Empirical research is typically published in scholarly journals and therefore follows a specific format. You'll find information divided into several sections:
Review Articles are scholarly articles that provide a critical evaluation of existing studies in a field or on a topic. These articles do not provide new research but help guide the conversation on a scholarly topic by pointing out areas where more research is needed, the main people working in a field, recent discoveries, and debates. These types of articles can also be great ways to find empirical research on a topic because they will likely cite many articles in the References section.